An overview of the current research ongoing to develop an effective vaccine to prevent dental caries. Reviews the current theory of caries development and the understanding of dental caries as a communicable disease. Discusses the scientific and moral imperative to develop a vaccine and the outlook for development, manufacture and distribution of such a vaccine in the future. Reviews the differences in approach utilizing passive vs. active immunity to fight caries. Reviews the different delivery mechanisms for caries vaccines and the efficacy and duration of protection offered by caries vaccines tested to date. Reviews the specific antigens currently tested to promote a host immune response to fight caries.